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Study of Network simulator (NS).and Simulation of Congestion Control Algorithms using NS

Study of Network simulator (NS).and Simulation of Congestion Control Algorithms using NS


To Study of Network simulator (NS).and Simulation of Congestion Control Algorithms using NS

Ns  overview

Ø    Ns programming: A Quick start

Ø    Case study I: A simple Wireless network

Ø    Case study II: Create a new agent in Ns

Ns overview
Ø    Ns Status

Ø    Periodical release (ns-2.26, Feb 2003)

Ø    Platform support

Ø    FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris, Windows and Mac

Ns unctionalities

Routing, Transportation, Traffic sources,Queuing disciplines, QoS


Ad hoc routing, mobile IP, sensor-MAC
Tracing, visualization and various utilitie
NS(Network Simulators)

Most of the commercial simulators are GUI driven, while some network simulators are CLI driven. The network model / configuration describes the state of the network (nodes,routers, switches, links) and the events (data transmissions, packet error etc.). An important output of simulations are the trace files. Trace files log every packet, every event that occurred in the simulation and are used for analysis. Network simulators can also provide other tools to facilitate visual analysis of trends and potential trouble spots.

Most network simulators use discrete event simulation, in which a list of pending "events" is stored, and those events are processed in order, with some events triggering future events—such as the event of the arrival of a packet at one node triggering the event of the arrival of that packet at a downstream node.

Simulation of networks is a very complex task. For example, if congestion is high, then estimation of the average occupancy is challenging because of high variance. To estimate the likelihood of a buffer overflow in a network, the time required for an accurate answer can be extremely large. Specialized techniques such as "control variates" and "importance sampling" have been developed to speed simulation.

Examples of network simulators

There are many both free/open-source and proprietary network simulators. Examples of notable network simulation software are, ordered after how often they are mentioned in research papers:

  1. ns (open source)
  2. OPNET (proprietary software)
  3. NetSim (proprietary software)

Uses of network simulators

Network simulators serve a variety of needs. Compared to the cost and time involved in setting up an entire test bed containing multiple networked computers, routers and data links, network simulators are relatively fast and inexpensive. They allow engineers, researchers to test scenarios that might be particularly difficult or expensive to emulate using real hardware - for instance, simulating a scenario with several nodes or experimenting with a new protocol in the network. Network simulators are particularly useful in allowing researchers to test new networking protocols or changes to existing protocols in a controlled and reproducible environment. A typical network simulator encompasses a wide range of networking technologies and can help the users to build complex networks from basic building blocks such as a variety of nodes and links. With the help of simulators, one can design hierarchical networks using various types of nodes like computers, hubs, bridges, routers, switches, links, mobile units etc.

Various types of Wide Area Network (WAN) technologies like TCP, ATM, IP etc. and Local Area Network (LAN) technologies like Ethernet, token rings etc., can all be simulated with a typical simulator and the user can test, analyze various standard results apart from devising some novel protocol or strategy for routing etc. Network simulators are also widely used to simulate battlefield networks in Network-centric warfare

There are a wide variety of network simulators, ranging from the very simple to the very complex. Minimally, a network simulator must enable a user to represent a network topology, specifying the nodes on the network, the links between those nodes and the traffic between the nodes. More complicated systems may allow the user to specify everything about the protocols used to handle traffic in a network. Graphical applications allow users to easily visualize the workings of their simulated environment. Text-based applications may provide a less intuitive interface, but may permit more advanced forms of customization.

Packet loss

occurs when one or morepacketsof data travelling across a computer networkfail to reachtheir destination. Packet loss is distinguished as one of the three main error types encountered in digital communications; the other two being bit errorand spurious packets caused due to noise.

Packets can be lost in a network because they may be dropped when a queue in the network node overflows. The amount of packet loss during the steady state is another important property of a congestion control scheme. The larger the value of packet loss, the more difficult it is for transportlayer protocols to maintain high bandwidths, the sensitivity to loss of individual packets, as well as to frequency and patterns of loss among longer packet sequences is strongly dependent on the application itself.


This is the main performance measure characteristic, and most widely used. Incommunicationnetworks, such asEthernetorpacket radio, throughputor network throughputis the average rate of successfulmessage delivery over a communication channel. The throughput is usually measured inbitsper second (bit/s orbps), andsometimes indata packetsper second or data packets pertime slotThis measure how soon the receiver is able to get a certain amount of data send by the sender. It is determined as the ratio of the total data received to the end to end delay. Throughput is an important factor which directly impacts the network performance


Delay is the time elapsed while a packet travels from one point e.g., source premise or network ingress to destination premise or network degrees. The larger the valueof delay, the more difficult it is for transport layer protocols to maintain highbandwidths. We will calculate end to end delay

Queue Length

A queuing system in networks can be described as packets arriving for service, waiting for service if it is not immediate, and if having waited for service, leaving thesystem after being served. Thus queue length is very important characteristic to determine that how well the active queue management of the congestion control

algorithm has been working.